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im电竞quanqiuzaixianjiaoyu:zhanyidexuyao yihoudejiyu

来源 :光明日报 访问次数 : 发布时间 :2019-06-04

 对比当前中国从疫情中的稳步恢复,全球范围内的疫情防控形势却仍步履维艰。截至2020年5月25日,全球范围内至少212个国家发现了新冠病毒,确诊感染人数已达538.5万人,死亡人数已达35.5万人。峰值时刻,新冠肺炎疫情曾导致全球191个国家中的15.8亿学生停课,占全球在校学生总数的91.3%。

  为应对疫情,各国纷纷出台关闭学校等防控举措,将教育从线下搬到线上,一场全球化的在线教育实验就此铺开。有的国家开始着手对教师和校长远程工作进行培训(如中国、意大利、英国);有的国家开始大规模部署在线课程(中国);还有的国家试图建立并培训支持远程教育的工作小组(美国)。

  通过对英国、美国、日本、法国、联合国教科文组织、经合组织、世界银行以及中国本土近期推出的在线教育政策展开横向的研究与比较,本文分别从疫情期间的政策措施、教育资源调配、在线教学开展状况等维度,对国际上在线教育现状和动向进行梳理提炼。

  教育停摆冲击各国经济秩序

im电竞  yiqingdequanqiuhuaduishehuidailaijudachongji,xuduoxingyebudebuzanshitingbai,erzheiqizhong,youjiaoyuxingyetingbaisuochanshengdecishengyingxiangbukexiaoshi。zaijiadaiwashangwangkebenshenjiurangxuduojiatingzhuakuang,ertingkebojijingjideyingxiangzegengshizhiming。

im电竞  genjujinghezuzhijinqiyanjiufaxian,tingkehuiposhilaodonglilikaigangweijineryingxiangjingjizengzhang。jiyumeiguo、yingguoheouyuanqulaodonglishichangshujudexiangguantuice,xuexiaotingkehuidaozhigaoda20%delaodonglikenengxuyaolikaigongzuogangweilaizhaoguhaizi,ruozheizhongqingkuangchixusizhou,zheixieguojiadegdpkenenghuixiajiang1.5%。zhenduiyingguodeyanjiuxianshi,xuexiaotingkesizhoukenengjiyingguojingjizaochengshushiyiyingbangdesunshi。zhenduimeiguodeyanjiushujuxianshi,ruguomeiguosuoyouxuexiaotingke4zhou,di、zhong、gaodesunshiyucezhifenbiewei127yimeiyuan、510yimeiyuanhe565yimeiyuan,fenbiexiangdangyumeiguogdpde0.06%、0.24%he0.26%。qici,yiqingjitingkehuizhijieyingxiangdaozuipinkunjiating。liru,zailuoshanji,jin80%degonglixuexiaoxueshengyouzigehuodemouzhongxingshidexiaocan,tingkehouxiaocangongyingkenengzhongduan,bufenpinkunjiatingyinciershousun。zaijiushiyiqingdailaidejingjiweijiduijiaoyubokuandesuoshui,liruniuyueshijiaoyujizheyilisha·xiapiluo(eliza shapiro)zhichu,yiqingqijianfengxiaodailaidesunshijuda,jutisunshieduzhijinshiyigeweizhishu。

  教育在线化应对普遍仓促

  turuqilaideyiqingduigeguojiaoyuxitongxingchengzhongdakaoyan。geguojucuoduoyangdanbufabeidong,zheizhongcangcuyingduidejumiantuchutixianzairuxiajigefangmian。

im电竞  yishiyiqingduishishengxinlidailaiguangfanchongji,yayishishengqingxu。genjumeiguo“jiaoyuzhoukan”(education week)4yue7rizhi8rikaizhandediaochaxianshi,xuexiaotingkeshideshishengshiqiyanzhongshoucuo。bushaoshishengbeiguduganheyushehuituojieganlongzhao,zaixianxuexidejuxianxinghejishuguzhangyelingrengandaojusang,xinguanfeiyanhuanzhesiwangrenshudeshangsheng,shiyelvdebiaoshengyijiguanyuweilaibuquedingxingdexinwengengshijiazhongleshishengdexinliyali。yuweijiqianxiangbi,you76%dexueshenghe66%delaoshimianlinqingxudiluodekunrao。

  ershizaixianjiaoxuexiaoguobujinrurenyi。genjuzhongguojiaokeyuan2020nian3yuemianxiangquanguojin18wanmingjiaoshikaizhandediaoyanxianshi,jiuzaixianjiaoxuedeshijixiaoguoeryan,48.96%dejiaoshibiaoshishijixiaoguoyiban,zheiyizhanbizuiduo。shijieyinxingdebaogaoyezhichu,zhangshijianzhongduanjiaoyuhuishixueshengtuolixuexiguocheng,nizhuanxuexichengguo。tebiexuyaozhuyideshi,tingkekenengdaozhiyanzhongdejiaoyubugongpingxianxiang。yixiexueshengyinzizhi、jiatingjingjishuipingdengbutongyuanyinwufashunliqiehuandaoyuanchengxuexizhuangtaierbunenghuoquyouxiaoxinxi,yixieyouteshuhuoduoyanghuajiaoyuxuqiudexueshengqunti,yekenengquefayouxiaoyingduiyuanchengxuexidecelve。

im电竞  sanshishishengjishusuyangnanyimanzuzaixianjiaoyuxuqiu。jinghezuzhijiaoshijiaoxueguojidiaocha(talis)dejieguoxianshi:muqianjishushiyongzhuyaocunzaisangewenti:yishishuzijishushebeibuzu。jinghezuzhichengyuanzhong1/4dexuexiaoxiaozhangbiaoshi,shuzijishudeduanquehuobuzuzhengzaixiangdangdahuohendachengdushangzuaixuexi;ershishuzijishushiyongbuzu,zhiyou53%dejiaoshiyunxutamendexueshengjingchangshiyongxinxiyutongxinjishulaiwanchengxiangmuhuoketangzuoye;sanshishuzijishupeixunbuzu。

im电竞  sishijiatinghuanjingchayiyingxiangtuchu。cangcushangxiandeyuanchengjiaoyujiashangjujiajinzudexuexihuanjing,shijishangduiyujiatingsuonenggoutigongderuanyingjiantiaojianyaoqiujunjiaogao,pinfuchajudailaideyingxiangzaiqizhongyouweituxian。meiguo“jiaoyuzhoukan”jinqidiaoyanxianshi,meiguopinkundiqudedabufenlaoshiduigaidiqu3/4jiyishangxueshengdeshuxuechengjideluohoubiaodaledanyou。zhongguojiaokeyuandiaochayixianshi,“xueshengjiatinghuanjinghetiaojiandailaideganraoyuzhangai”shishoufangjiaoshirenweikaizhanzaixianjiaoyudezuidatiaozhan(29.90%)。

  集中与分散式教育管理体制差别明显

im电竞  mianduijijukuosandeyiqing,jizhongguanlidejiaoyuxingzhengtizhiwuyigengnengfahuijishiyouxiaodezuoyong,zheifangmianbijiaodianxingdeshizhongguoyufaguo。zhongguokangjiyiqingqijian,quanguojiaoyuxitongzaiduanshijianneidongyuanlekuayueshikongdeduofangliliangjinxingtonglihezuo,kaizhanleshejiquanxueduandeyuanchengzaixianjiaoyu,yijiaoyuzhanxiandekangyixingdong,diyuleyiqingduijiaoyuxitongdechongji,huiyinglequanguofanweineiguangdaxueshengyujiazhangdeqieshixuqiu,chongfentixianleguojiazhilitixideyouyuexing。

  zaiouzhoudalu,faguodejiaoyuguanlizhangqiyilaijifuzhongyangjiquansecai。jishizaidangxia,faguodeguojiashilirengranmingxianditixianzheguojiajizhongguanlitizhideyoushi。faguoquanjingde31gexuequshichuizhiguanlide,feichangleisiyuyixieguojiade“junqu”,jizaihendachengdushangbingbuhengxianglishuyudifangzhengfu,daduoshujiaoyujueceyouguojiajiaoyubutongyibushu、zongxiangluoshi。faguoguotumianjizai60wanpingfanggonglizuoyou,renkou6700wanzuoyou,yuzhongguodesichuanshengxiangdang。faguoyirucijichutiliang,shixianleyiqingqijianzaixianjiaoyudejizhonghua、zhongxinhua、tongyihua,jijibenshangshitongyipingtai、tongyijiaoxueziyuan、tongyizhucerukoudeng,lingquanguoshishenghexuexiaodouxiangduirongyishangshou,bingxunsushenruguanche。

im电竞  xiangduieryan,duiyufenquanzhidejiaoyuxingzhengtizhi,suiranzunzhongdifangjiaoyuzhuquan,quebaogediyindizhiyi,danmianduixiongyongerlaideyiqing,duanqineiweibinengjishiyouxiaoyingdui,zheileijiaoyuxingzhengtizhiruzaimeiguo。meiguolianbangjiaoyubuzai3yue13rilianhemeiguojikongzhongxintuichuleguanyuzhongxiaoxuexiaofengxiaocuoshidezhinan,zonghekaolvduozhongyinsu,duigedifengxiaozuochulexiangxijianyi。fengxiaodaozhirichangjiaoxuejiaranerzhi,youyugediyiqingdebutong,youdezhouhuodiquzaifengxiaozhiji,bingweijishituichuxiangyingdezaixianjiaoyu,qijinrengyou21%dexueshengweinengkaizhanzaixianxuexi,dancishiyiqingsinveyijihubojimeiguoquanjing。zheiyifangmianfanyingleyiqingsinveduifanghuyishixiangduibuqiangdexifangshehuidailaidejudachongji;yifangmianyefanyingchufensandejiaoyuxingzhengtixiyingduitufayiqingzhijinanyijishiyingdui。

  “数字鸿沟”在国别间开始显现

im电竞  “bingmaweidong,liangcaoxianxing”,jianshidejichuhechongzudejingfeiziyuanbaozhangshidayingquanminfangyijiaoyuzhanyideguanjian。chaodaguimohulianwangjiaoyuzuzhidehexinyaosuxuyaobaokuo:liuchangdetongxinpingtai、shiqiedeshuziziyuan、bianlidexuexigongju、duoyangdexuexifangshi、linghuodejiaoxuezuzhi、youxiaodezhichifuwu、miqiedezhengxiaoqixietong。xiangduiyuyafeiladiqu,fadaguojiahediquwulunshuzihuazhengtibushu、yidongzhongduanshebeitigong,haishiquanguojunhenggongjinbaozhangjiaoyugongpingshang,juntuxianchuqiyoushi,fadaguojiahefazhanzhongguojiajingyouyiqingqijianzaixianjiaoyuertuxianchude“shuzihonggou”shibuyaneryude。3yue27ri,meiguozongtongtelangpuqianshu《guanzhuangbingduyuanzhu、jiujihejingjianquanfa》(youchengcaresfaan),zongbokuanedutishengzhi2.2wanyimeiyuan,qizhongweigonglixuexiaotigong135yimeiyuandebuzhu,zhuyaoyongyubangzhuxueshengmanzuxuexixuqiuhexiangyinghuodong,baokuozaixuexiaoguanbideqingkuangxiabangzhuxueshengkaizhanyuanchengxuexideng。erduineixiebufadaguojiahediqueryan,zaixianjiaoyudepujiyuzhiliangwentishangzaiqici,tingkeshijianguozhangkenengzhijiedaozhideshidaguimoqingshaonianertongdeshixueyuchuoxuechao。

  在线教育的新风口

  suizheyiqingjiaozhezhuangtaidechixu,geguojianzaixianjiaoyuyemianlinzhekuaisufazhandejiyuhetiaozhan。dapizijinbuduanzhuru、geguojiaoyuzhikutongbukaizhanyanjiu、jiaoyuzhidujianshebuduanwanshandeng,jianghuibazaixianjiaoyutuixiangyigexindejieduan。zaizheiyangdelishijinchengzhong,imdianjingyifangmianyaolizuzishenyoushiyuyiyoujingyan,zhashituijinzaixianjiaoyufazhanyuwanshan;lingyifangmiangengyaozhuzhongguojijingyanjiejian,yixianshangjiaoyuyuxianxiajiaoyuyoujijiehede“xinchangtai”silu,dahaojiaoyukangyidechijiuzhan。

  一是预判教育停摆对经济等各领域的次生影响,及时推出应对举措。im电竞教育系统的非正常化运行会直接波及教育相关产业、财政拨款、劳动力市场等,进而影响宏观经济与社会的方方面面。在“后疫情时期”,积极参照国际经验,及时预判和测算上述次生影响及其规模,配合复工复产的大局需要前瞻性眼光。

  二是做好“战时向平时”的过渡部署,迎接教育抗疫新形势。im电竞在国际疫情倒灌、国内局部反弹的双重风险下,各地不同学段的陆续复课复学并不意味着在线教育行将结束。校园情境中的线下教育与在线教育的同时并存将是可预见的后疫情时期“新常态”。在这次应对疫情的大考中,各国在线教育无一例外地经历了从仓促应对到逐渐理顺的过程,并在危机应对中抓住机遇,创造了一系列新窗口与新风口。纵观全球,教育创新与科技创新既是抗疫的有力工具,为“战时转向平时”集聚了新的经济增长点。要抓住线上力量兑换为线下力量的时机,为构建基于信息技术的新型教育教学模式、教育服务供给方式,推动教育治理体系和治理能力的现代化寻求契机与突破。

  三是进一步发挥集中管理体制优势,理顺体系构建与资源供给,避免政出多门、重复建设、资源过载。集中管理式的教育行政体制在应对突发危机时具有天然优势,但在我国体量巨大、各地经济文化发展不平衡的现实背景下,各级各地教育行政部门在应对疫情所采取的措施中,难免出现交叠错落的现象。有必要参照其他有教育集权传统的国家经验,进一步从理顺体系构建与资源供给入手,积极探索多种途径,深挖在线教育的集约化、低成本、高质量潜力,充分发挥我国教育领域治理体系和治理能力的优越性。

  四是弥合在线教育在不同地域、不同家庭间凸显的“数字鸿沟”。im电竞在线教育所凸显出的“数字鸿沟”是全球共性,弥合这一不均衡与不公平更应当成为我国目前教育领域“扶贫攻坚”的题中之义。作为一个全方位的压力测试,此次疫情期间的在线教育实践将为我国的基础设施的升级改造工程奠定诊断基础与改进方向,以期在未来进一步以基建促进均衡,以科技保障公平。

  五是开放线上教育资源,加强国际教育合作。im电竞此次疫情为国际教育合作带来了非同一般的机遇。在线教育的优势在于最好的资源能以最低成本、最大规模、最高效率进行扩散和传播,这为地区间、国际间的教育融合与协作发展带来突破口。疫情期间,海外不少知名学校图书馆网站面向全球开放学术资料下载,最大限度推动资源利用,类似共享性公益行动正在日益扩大化。经合组织、联合国教科文组织与世界银行均鼓励加强合作,经合组织尤其认为:要“学习利用国家内部和国家之间的差异做法,虽然危机将学习、研究和评估推到了幕后,但各国内部实施的不同解决方案及其影响应该被仔细记录下来,将多元化的实施创意与有效教训在国际上分析与分享。”与此同时,中国的有效经验、解决方案与优质资源,也应主动寻求在国际上展示与共享,为不同地域范围内“教育共同体”的构建承担起应有的大国责任。

  (benwenyouzhongguojiaoyukexueyanjiuyuanguojiyubijiaojiaoyuyanjiusuoketizugonggao,ketizufuzerenwangsu;zhibirenweizhaozhangjing、wangxiaoning、zhangyongjun、tianhui、zhangxiaoguang)

文章关键字: 疫情 学生 国家 中国 学校

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